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31.05.2022 12:51

Conveyor belt mechanism is a system that minimizes manpower in the transfer of products from one place to another. Conveyor conveyor belts are very important transfer vehicles used to transport materials over long distances horizontally or inclined and on moving belts.

If tons of material is to be transferred from one area to another in a short time, the use of belt conveyor transport system is inevitable. Conveyor belt systems are used in many areas from the industry sector to airports, as well as processes such as transporting materials from one place to another, unloading, storing or taking them from the warehouse.

For this reason, today in mines, iron - steel factories, thermal power plants, ore, coal, lime, sinter etc. The main conveyor system in the transfer of materials is belt conveyors. With these conveyors, it is possible to transport both dry and wet materials, as well as small granular materials such as ash, flour, sand, and granular materials such as agricultural products. It is also possible to transport multi-part materials such as coal or stone.

Where an inclined transport system requires it, the slope should not exceed 20 degrees. Normal conveyor belt systems operate at temperatures between -20 and 125 degrees. However, by using specially developed tapes, the tape withstand temperature can be increased up to 170 degrees. The transport distance of the conveyors is from one meter to 1000m. Band widths can be from 300mm to 3000mm. It is also possible to transport to longer distances. However, this requires special solutions. Today, there are specially designed belt systems with a length of about 100 km.

Conveyor belt systems operating using two rotating drums can consist of many hooks, gears, buckets and rubber belts depending on the desired length.

Conveyor belt systems are produced as mobile or fixed according to the needs of the enterprises. The mobile conveyor belt system is mounted on a wheeled chassis and can be easily transported to the desired location. In addition, they have an adjustable mechanism according to the ground slope of the place where they will be installed.

History of Conveyor Belts:

Conveyor belt systems from their first emergence to being usable for today's multi-purpose is basically related to the belt material used in the belt system becoming higher quality.

It is seen that belt conveyors emerged with the industrial revolution in the 1830s. It has been widely used in the world, especially after the improvement of tape quality and the use of triple rolls. Today, when compared to trucks, it is seen that the cost of transporting materials with conveyor belt systems is ten times cheaper than transporting by truck.

The material of conveyor belts can be fabric, rubber, leather, metal or thermoplastic. On the other hand, the belt dimensions and weight that the belt can weigh are very important.

Advantages of Conveyor Belt Systems:

Conveyor conveyor belt systems; They are unrivaled transport mechanisms with their low cost, ease of use, wide range of use. Benefits of conveyor conveyor belts:

- High amount of material transport,

- Less energy consumption,

- Low investment and maintenance cost,

- Ease of use,

- Labor saving and high efficiency

As a result;

Conveyor belts require a higher upfront investment compared to trucks, but are also more economical in the long run. This is because trucks and buckets have a relatively shorter economic life compared to conveyor systems, thanks to regular maintenance and spare parts supply.

Conveyor Handling Systems, truck etc. It is more economical and efficient than the transport vehicle fleet for the following reasons:

1. It can be laid up to the desired location on the entire working area. Because mines and quarries often have harsh conditions that restrict the safe movement of vehicles.

2. Conveyor belts are more environmentally friendly than trucks that consume fossil fuels. They also emit less noise and dust pollution compared to trucks.

3. Conveyor belt transport systems trucks etc. It is more economical and efficient compared to transportation vehicles. Maintenance, labor and operating costs are lower.

4. Conveyor belt systems are safer

5. The conveyor belt is in continuous operation and much less number of workers are required during operation, which prevents work accidents to a large extent.

Structure of Conveyor Belt System

These conveying systems basically consist of a belt equipped with rollers, which is constantly in motion between two drums.

Major Elements of Conveyor Belt Systems:

-Conveyor belt


-Drive drum,

-Tail drum,


-Loading bunker,

-Dump shot,

-Tension equipment,

-Scraper assembly,

Conveyor Belt

An ideal conveyor belt should have the following features:

-Withstand high tension and weight,

-Do not stretch too much,

- Moisture-proof feature,

-Resistance to the winding movement of the drums,

- Resistance to abrasive material and long life,

-In special cases, resistance to extreme heat, cold, climatic factors, oil, oxidation, ozone, etc.


Rolls have two functions:

1- To facilitate the rotation of the band,

2-To shape the tape into a groove if necessary.

The rolls on which the material is carried are called "carrier rolls", and the reels that carry only the empty tape at the bottom are called "return rolls".


In belt conveyors, the elements that move the belt are rollers and drums. Two types of drums are used in conveyor belt systems as drive and tail drums. The drum that provides the movement of the band with the rotational movement it receives from the motor and thus the transfer of the material is called the "drive drum". Tail drums are used to adjust the tension of the belt.


All the equipment of the conveyor is placed on a chassis.

loading hopper

The material must be loaded properly and proportionally on the belt conveyors. Thus, empty or overloaded areas will not be formed on the belt, and there will be no loss of capacity and spillage of the material outside the belt.

unloading bunker

The material carried on the belt must be transferred from the belt to another area at the discharge site. For this, an unloading bunker is used.

Cleaning scheme

If the material carried on the belt is wet and sticky, this material will not separate from the belt and will damage the drum, rollers and operating equipment on the return path. For this reason, during the transportation of the material that clings to this type of belt, a sheet metal plate should be laid at the bottom of the carrier rolls to prevent the material spilled from the band edges from falling into the return path.